To mark Penguin Consciousness Day (Sunday 20 January), we’ve delved into our archive of animal data to showcase a number of the noteworthy members from this household of much-loved marine birds.
Also called the little blue penguin (or kororā in Māori), the Smallest penguins are native to New Zealand and the coast of southern Australia and off-lying islands.
They usually weigh round 1 kg (2 lb 3 oz) and on common stand simply 30 cm (11.8 in) tall – about the identical peak as a pug. These Antipodean birds spend about 80% of their lives at sea. After they do enterprise on land – primarily to moult previous feathers, breed and lift their chicks, they reside in nesting burrows in sandy areas like dunes.
Regardless of their petite proportions, fairy penguins can eat about one-quarter of their physique weight in fish per day.
Sir Nils Olav
Consideration! You’re about to be offered to Brigadier Nils Olav – the world’s Highest-ranking penguin.
The king penguin – a resident at Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland, UK – is not only the mascot of the Norwegian Royal Guards however he has acquired a knighthood from King Harald V of Norway.
His newest promotion to Brigadier got here in 2016, having labored his manner up the ranks from Sergeant in 1987, Regimental Sergeant Main (1993), Honourable Regimental Sergeant Main (2001) and Colonel-in-Chief (2005).
All 17 species of penguin reside in Earth’s southern hemisphere, however one species sometimes dips its toe into the north.
The vary of the Galápagos penguin – the Most northerly penguin – extends simply previous the Equator, with their nests generally noticed on the northernmost tip of Isabela island in Ecuador’s Galápagos archipelago.
One other much less lucky document price elevating provided that that is all about Penguin Consciousness Day is that this species can also be the Rarest penguin. As of the final rely, its inhabitants was estimated to quantity between 1,800 and 4,700 and, as such, it is listed as Endangered by the IUCN. Efforts are underway by conservation teams such because the Galapagos Conservancy to spice up their numbers. One methodology getting used is to construct much-needed synthetic nesting websites, which by 2018 was already seeing some constructive outcomes.
Because the world’s Largest penguin (although see “PENGUIN FACT” beneath), the emperor wants no introduction. Its stoic way of living on the blizzard-driven ice sheets of Antarctica has been recorded in lots of documentaries – together with just lately within the BBC’s Dynasties sequence. Maybe much less well-known are its record-breaking actions at sea.
Whereas penguins on land are a number of the least swish birds, counting on waddling, hopping and “tobogganing” (sliding on their bellies) to get round, within the water it’s a complete totally different story. Their wings have developed into flippers, making them a number of the most subtle avian swimmers, able to propelling themselves far beneath the floor in pursuit of fish.
Emperors maintain the titles for each Deepest dive by a chicken (564 m; 1,850 ft) and Longest period dive by a chicken (32.2 min). To place that in context, the Longest underwater breath maintain by a human freediver is 11 min 35 sec, set by Stephane Mifsud (France) in 2009.
PENGUIN FACT: Emperors are the biggest dwelling species of penguin, however they don’t seem to be the most important of all time. The now-extinct colossus penguin stood as much as 2 m (6 ft 6 in) tall and weighed as a lot as 115 kg (253 lb 8 oz), making it the Largest penguin ever.
On the different finish of the dimensions to the Galápagos penguin (above) is the macaroni. With an estimated 6.3 million pairs dwelling on the Antarctic Peninsula and numerous subantarctic islands within the Atlantic and Indian oceans, this species is the Most typical penguin.
That mentioned, it’s nonetheless labeled as Weak provided that its inhabitants has worryingly dropped by nearly one-third for the reason that Nineties.
These birds – distinguished by their yellow-orange crests paying homage to bushy eyebrows – bought their title not from the well-known tacky pasta dish, however from a hat adorned with feathers favoured by fashion-conscious dandies within the 18th century.
Try extra wonderful animal feats in Guinness World Data: Wild Issues, out now in retailers and on Amazon.